Saint Augustine

This is the post excerpt.


“Thou hast made us for thyself, O Lord, and our heart is restless until it rests in thee.”(St. Augustine, Confessions)

The Age of the King


This age has seen the coming of a King, a suffering servant who came to undo the evils of a sinister dragon who rules this world through unseen forces and spirits.

Long ago in a simple land, of simple and humble people, a child was born of a woman in a small village called Bethlehem.  This child was destined to be King, but first he would have to suffer and endure many hardships and afflictions.  We must start at the beginning, further back, at the beginning of the age.

It all began with the creator, Yahweh who spoke into existence the world and all the creatures that live in the world.  The Creator said, “let there be” and his word came into being.  The world was created and all that was in it; the earth, vegetation, creatures, and man himself was brought to be by the very word of Yahweh God.  This God was the God of all; of men and of angels.  Angels were celestial beings created to serve God.  For in the beginning Yahweh said, “let there be light, and there was light.”  This very light, which is refered to, was the angels.  But Lucifer (meaning: morning star) one of the greatest angels of heaven rebelled against God and convinced a third of the angels to turn against God.  This rebellion was seen in heaven as the first war; from which God cast Lucifer and his angels down to earth from heaven.  Lucifer became known as Satan or the devil, and inhabits the world trying to controls those of this age through lies and deception.  He is also known as the prince of the power of the air.

Yahweh God also decided to create man from the soil of the ground and blew the breath of life into his nostrils, and man became a living being.  God placed this man in the midst of a garden, called Eden, to cultivate it and care for it.  This first man was named Adam.

Then Yahweh God commanded Adam, “You are free to eat of all the trees of the garden.  Except for the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you are not to eat of it; for the day you eat of it, you are doomed to die.”

The man Adam gave names to all the cattle, all the birds of heaven, and all the wild animals.  But no helper was found suitable for Adam.  God said, “It is not right that the man should be alone.  I shall make him a helper.”  So Yahweh made the man fall into a deep sleep. And while he was asleep, he took one of his ribs and closed the flesh up again.  Yahweh fashioned the rib into a woman, and brought her to the man Adam that she might be his wife.

The man and the woman were in a state of innocence, they were naked but felt no shame before each other.

Now the sinister Satan could take many forms and disguises in this world.  So he came one day, in the form a snake, to the woman and tempted her with the fruit of the tree which God had forbid them to eat, and she did eat.  And her husband also ate-they were doomed.  After this they were ashamed and their eyes were opened; seeing that they were truly naked.  So they hid themselves from the LORD God of heaven and earth.

The Lord God said to Satan, who took the form of a snake, “Accursed are you of all the animals wild and tame!  On your belly you will go and on dust will feed as long as you live.”(Genesis 3:14)  The Lord God put enmity between the women and Satan, and between his offspring and her offspring.  That is why it is said,

“They will bruise your head, And you will strike their heel.”(Genesis 3:15b)

The offspring of the woman who was named Eve, because she would be the mother of all living, were the righteous people who the Lord God chose from the foundations of the world to be his.  They would be in constant battle or contention with the offspring of the devil, who through the sovereign will of God and their own free will were passed over by the grace of God because of their disobedience.

History of this age reveals sin as literally a broken relationship with God, our father, and we as his family members have broken that relationship.  These broken bonds can be traced back to the first union of man and woman; Adam and Eve turned from their trust in the one who made them by eating the forbidden fruit.  It is not just the breaking of rules, but like rebellious children who want to go their own way, we’ve all turned away from God at many times during our lives.  (Scott Hahn, “A Father Who Keeps His Promises”p.77)

We live in a world of fear, shame, anger, murder, pain, depression, isolation, alienation and death.  A dark world controlled by an evil prince the devil.  But the Lord God had a plan to overcome this enemy-the devil.  He was to call a family, a tribe, a nation, a people to himself.  We are that people;” a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.” (1 Peter 2:9)

When we choose to follow the Kingdom of God, we align ourselves not only with the offspring of that woman in the garden-Eve.  But there is another woman who gave birth to a child, and by her humble obedience to Yahweh, became the mother of God’s son, a man that would become known as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. The God/man: Jesus Christ.


The man Jesus Christ, born to a virgin, Mary, who became the Mother of God.  How can this be?  A person that is both God and man.  Jesus was to be the savior of the world.  He was born to live, a suffering servant, and die as a substitute for many.  God the Father came down to us in the form and person of his son Jesus.

Since the fall from grace of Adam and Eve in the garden, the human race has been under a curse.  This curse of original sin, that is passed down from generation to generation, is in fact the absence of the grace of God.

Jesus lived the perfect sinless life, and died a sacrificial death on a Roman cross that we might be saved from God’s wrath.  Jesus taught that through the act of baptism (ritual washing) and a heart-felt trust in him we may be saved.  This Baptism seals us as children of his Kingdom and imparts God’s grace to us.  As children of the King we follow him by faith, and work out our faith with fear and trembling by preforming good works (acts of love) toward our fellow man, and are there by justified.  Ultimately we will be glorified and reunited with God in heaven.  Before then we are commanded to persevere until the end; serving our Lord in this age as Christian soldiers.

The Lord did not leave us without weapons.  By the Church and his divine revelation-the Bible, he has given us an arsenal of truth and guidance for the living out of faith and morals.  We are told to “Put on the whole armor of God that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil.  For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against authorities, against cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. “(Ephesians 6:11,12)  He has given us armor: the belt of truth, the breastplate of righteousness, the readiness of the gospel of peace, the shield of faith, the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the spirit (the word of God).  With these weapons we are commanded to pray always in the spirit, keeping alert with all perseverance, making supplications for all the saints.  (Ephesians 6:13-18)

In the histories of the twelve tribes of Israel, Joachim was an extremely rich man.  He always brought a double offering to the Lord telling himself, “My offering for all the people is from my surplus and my own offering to the Lord God is for forgiveness, to atone for my sins.  Joachim and his wife Anna were not able to conceive a child.  Anna lamented that she was childless.  They both were extremely frustrated and prayed for the Lord to bless them.  As Anna was praying an angel appeared before her saying, ”Anna, Anna, the Lord God has heard your prayer.  You will conceive and give birth and your child will be spoken of everywhere people live.” And the wife’s pregnancy came to term, after nine months, Anna gave birth to a girl and gave her the name Mary.  Day by day, the child grew stronger.  (Infancy gospel of James)

This Mary would become the new Eve, and where Eve had been disobedient she would be obedient; where Eve had lead all humanity into sin, Mary by her humble submission to God would be the vessel by which the savior of the world came into this world to live and walk among us.

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.  He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made.  In him was life, and the life was the light of men.  The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.  He came for testimony, to bear witness to the light, that all might believe through him.  He was not the light, but came to bear witness to the light.

The true light that enlightens every man was coming into the world.  He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world knew him not.  He came to his own home, and his own people received him not.   But to all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God; who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.

And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only son from the Father.  (John bore witness to him, and cried, “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me ranks before me.’ “) And from his fullness have we all received, grace upon grace.  For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.  No one has ever seen God; the only son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.”(John 1:1-18 RSV)

The testimony of John the Baptist was of the God/Man Jesus Christ.  Here we see Jesus as he was before he entered time, the pre-incarnate Christ, the Word.

The Son of Man walks onto the world stage in the introduction of John’s Gospel.  This is the good news written to the whole world about a savior sent from God to save his elect people of God.  Christ said of him,” Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has risen no one greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he”(Matthew 11:11 RSV)

The Consummation of Last Things


God judges at all times; but the subject of this article is the last  judgement 

“Now it is a belief held by the whole Church of the true God, in private confession and also in public profession, that Christ is to come from heaven to judge both the living and the dead, and this is what we call the Last Day, the day of divine judgement–that is, the last period of time; for it is not certain for how many days this judgement will extend.”{St. Augustine, City of God, Book XX, p. 895}

God is at this very moment judging, but there will come a final day of judgement in which we stand before Almighty God in a particular judgement.  But, for most of us, death must come first.

1. Death

In the current order of salvation, the origin of death is a punishment for sin.  Man, by nature is made to be a mortal being.  In the garden of Eden, he was given the gift of immortality.  He was punished by God, because of his transgression of the divine commandment, to death.

The Council of Trent teaches in the decree on original sin, that Adam became subject to sin by transgression of the law, that God had previously threatened him with death, and Adam transmitted death to the entire human race. { Denzinger, 788 et seq. cf. D 101,175.}

Scripture tells us, “Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned.”(Romans 5:12)

Saint Augustine defended this clear “de fide” teaching of the Church (original sin) against the Pelagians, who denied the original state, and so regarded death as arising from the natural decomposition of the human body alone.

In the instance of the person in a state of grace, death loses the penalty associated with it, and becomes a mere consequence of sin.  Our Lord Jesus and his Mother Mary, be cause of their being without original sin, death was neither a punishment or a consequence of sin. But, to them in their human nature, death was a natural one.

All human beings subject to original sin are subject to the law of death.  This generality of death is based on scripture, “It is appointed to men once to die.”(Heb. 9:27)  The significance of death is that the possibility of conversion ceases, and any reward in the next world is proportional to the merits and demerits of life on earth.  The doctrine of the impossibility of justification after death was projected at the First Vatican Council.

2. The Particular Judgement

After death, comes the particular judgement.  This takes place by the divine decree of judgement–the eternal fate of the deceased person is decided.  The Catholic Church does not teach millenarism as taught by some of the early fathers, “an empire of the Messiah, foretold a long dominion of a thousand years for Christ and the just on earth before the general resurrection, asserted accordingly, that only then will the final beatification take place.  The Church also teaches against the various sects that hold to the view of an unconscious state known as soul sleep.  Holy scripture implies the teaching by,  “This day you shall be with me in paradise.”(Luke 23:43) The belief in a particular judgement  was attested to by St. John Chrysostom, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and others.

3. Heaven

The essential bliss of heaven; the souls of the just who are free from all guilt of sin, at the time of death, will enter into heaven.  As the creed says, “I believe in life everlasting.”

 And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband;  and I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling of God is with men. He will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be with them; he will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain any more, for the former things have passed away.  And he who sat upon the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new. Also he said, “Write this, for these words are trustworthy and true.“(Revelation 20:2-5)

This city is obviously not that of a king who reigns for a thousand years.  For it is very clear that every tear, God will wipe away.  The words of St. Paul ring true here,” Death, where is your sting? ” Sin is the only sting of death, and without sin, for there will be no sin in heaven.  We, who have a saving faith, will behold the Divine Essence face to face, immediately.  The condition for achieving of eternal life is the knowledge of God and of Christ.

In addition to essential  bliss of heaven, which comes from the beatific vision, there is also an accidental blessedness, that comes from the natural knowledge and love of created things.  In being with Christ; reunification with Jesus and the Mother of God, and also the angels and saints.  Our reunion with family and former earthly friends adds to this joy of blessedness.  Jesus compares the reward for the good works with treasures in Heaven, which cannot be lost.(Mt. 6:20) This is the property of heaven.

Eternity, the bliss of Heaven lasts forever.  Pope Benedict XII declared: “The vision and this enjoyment (of the Divine Essence) continues without interruption or diminution of the vision and enjoyment, and will continue until the general judgement and thenceforth for all eternity.”

The degree of perfection of the vision given to the just is proportionate to each persons merit: inequality of reward.  Christ promised, “He (the son of man) will render to everyone according to his works”(Mt. 16:27)


4. Hell

The reality of Hell is that souls who die in the condition of personal grievous sin enter Hell. (De fide.) A place of eternal punishment, this place is inhabited by those who rejected God in this life, and died in a state of mortal sin.  The Church rejects those sects that teach a annihilation of the godless after death.  The Athanasian Creed says: “But those who have done evil will go into eternal fire.”

The nature of punishment in Hell, as conceived by the fathers, depicted by fire, gnashing of teeth,  wailing, sorrow and despair.  This state shall last for eternity, “smoke from their torments ( of the damned ) shall ascend up for ever and ever.”( Rev. 20:10) ” On the ground of the teaching of Revelation it is  to be inferred, that the will of the damned is immovably hardened in evil and is, therefore, inaccessible to any true repentance.  The reason is that God refuses all further grace to the damned.”{Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Dr. L. Ott, p. 482}

5. Purgatory 

The souls of the just will, in the moment of death, who are burdened with venial sins or temporal punishment, be sent to purgatory.  This state of the soul is a place of purification from the penalty of sin.  Cleansing fire is a purgation from the temporal punishment due to sin.

Scripture speaks of, ” And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world nor the world to come.” (Mt. 12:32) Also in I Corinthians 3:12, “If any man’s work burn, he shall suffer loss; yet he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire.”

Tradition offers proof in the existence of cleansing fire can be derived from the testimony of the Fathers: St. Cyprian, St Augustine, and St. Thomas.  The sanctity of the justice of God is a concept that the punishments of sins still remain to be effected, but the soul in question is united in love with God, then this forbids that they would be cast into hell.  Therefore, the intermediate state of purgatory may be assumed, the purpose of which is purification.

6. The Second Coming of Christ

The eschatology of the whole of mankind is tied to the reality of the second coming of Christ.  At the end of the world Christ will come again in glory to pronounce judgement.  This is the “De fide” teaching of the Church, and can be seen in the Apostle’s creed: “From thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead.” The Parousia was held by the Thessolonians to be imminent:

” For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep.  For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel’s call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first;  then we who are alive, who are left, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so we shall always be with the Lord.”(1 Thes. 4:15-17)

There are also some signs of his second coming:

a.) The preaching of the Gospel to the whole world.

b.) The conversion of the Jews.

c.) Falling away from the faith.

d.) The appearance of Antichrist.

e.) Severe tribulations.

The time of the second coming is unknown to men.  Jesus left the time of his return a secret, known only to his Father.   “But of that day or that hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” (Mk. 13:32)

So let us believe, as those of Thessolonica, in the imminent return of Christ. “…to meet the Lord in the air; and so we shall always be with the Lord.” —living moment by moment, Coram Deo, before the face of God.

“Thou hast left thy first love.”

images (2)

Our Lord said this in the 2nd chapter of the Apocalypse when directing a letter to be written to the church at Ephesus.  St. John was writing this letter, at our Lord’s instruction, to the seven churches: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamus, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodica.  Our Lord explains the previous vision given to John as “The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches. And the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.”(Rev. 1:20, Douay-Theme)

If we look at this definition as a guide to interpretation of a later verse:

“But I have this against you, that you have abandoned the love you had at first. Remember therefore from where you have fallen; repent, and do the works you did at first. If not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place, unless you repent. “(Rev. 2:4-5, ESV)

If the candlesticks represent churches, then this verse is speaking of Christ moving the Church from its place.  Most would rebutt this by calling on the Gospel verse that “the gates of hell would not prevail against the Church.”(Matt. 16:18)  But, I see a conditional promise in Revelation 2, where if the Church does not repent, then God has every right to come and remove his Church from its place.

So, the current crisis in the Catholic church can be seen here in this verse.  This means the Church is under God’s judgement.  Most Catholics take the promise in Matthew 16 in isolation to all other scripture.  We must always remember to interpret scripture in light of Scripture as a whole.  They would say this makes God into a liar and God would never judge his One Holy Church, God’s instrument for salvation.

In history God has judged Israel more than once through war, exile, deportation and the great diaspora, in which until recently Israel had no land or nation.  Do we expect the Church to escape God’s judgement if Israel did not? “Truly I understand that God shows no partiality, but in every nation anyone who fears him and does what is right is acceptable to him.”(Acts10:34-35)

The Church has not feared God by establishing “man” as a god in this new council: “Believers and non-believers are practically agreed that man is the centre on which all things on earth focus-the apex of nature.”(Vatican II, Gaudium et Spec, 12)  This is an affront to God!  Man a mere creature thinking he is the focus.

The Church has not done what is right to God.  By establishing innerfaith dialogue with false religions, and relinquishing their previous attempts to proselytize those of other faiths.  This “all roads lead to God” mentality relies on a credulity that begs the question, why did Christ have to suffer and be sacrificed?

Let’s look at another passage:

“And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time. For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. Only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way.”(2 Thes. 2:6-7)

He who is restraining or now restrains, I believe, is the Papal authority, ie. The chair of Peter.  So, this passage is describing a time when he who restrains will be taken out of the way.  This is the way Sedevacantists see the papacy, because of its infallibility, now being circumvented by diabolical forces (mystery of iniquity) and taken out of the picture to make way for the anti-Christ.

In Daniel 9:27 is recorded:

“…he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And at the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him.”

Some have proposed that this refers to the Vatican II changes to the liturgy, and the spirit of insanity that has griped the Church ever since.  I do not agree.  But see the new Mass as valid as far as the elements are of bread and wine, but as for the ordination of priests after the council, I don’t know.  Some say the Mass is valid but illicit, for it should have never been changed, but for the immutability of Church teaching, these things should have been preserved.  I am not a cannon lawyer, so I am comfortable leaving this up to God.

In general, the Magisterial teaching up until 1958, following Pope Pius XIIs death, should be considered sound.  But after the modernist took over (a Masonic influence can and must be inferred here also), the forming of a new religion was set in motion.  The position toward other faiths changed after Vatican II; taking on a false ecumenism that focused on dialogue that leads nowhere and compromises the truth of Catholicism for a religion of indifference. Because of man’s grievous sins against him, Christ is allowing his Church, as the body of Christ, to parallel his own body as it was scourged by his enemies.

Apparitions and Prophecy

Marie-Julie saw that “there will not remain any vestige of the Holy Sacrifice, no apparent trace of faith. CONFUSION will be everywhere …”

“All the works approved by the infallible Church will cease to exist as they are today for a time. In this sorrowful annihilation, brilliant signs will be manifested on earth. If because of the wickedness of men Holy Church will be in darkness, the Lord will also send darkness that will stop the wicked in their search of wickedness …”

Our Lady of Good Success

“As for the Sacrament of Matrimony, which symbolizes the union of Christ with His Church, it will be attacked and profaned in the fullest sense of the word. Masonry, which will then be in power, will enact iniquitous laws with the objective of doing away with this Sacrament, making it easy for everyone to live in sin, encouraging the procreation of illegitimate children born without the blessing of the Church. The Christian spirit will rapidly decay, extinguishing the precious light of Faith until it reaches the point that there will be an almost total and general corruption of customs. The effects of secular education will increase, which will be one reason for the lack of priestly and religious vocations…”

The Remnant

We serve an awesome God who can preform mighty, and wondrous things.  As I read the Bible I am encouraged by the story of Ezekiel who, when overwhelmed by despair, thinking Israel would be extinguished says, “Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have demolished your alters, and I alone am left, and they seek my life.”  But  God replies to him, “I have kept for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.”(1 Kings 19:10,14/Romans 11:4)

God too in our time has kept a remnant; a peculiar people all his own.  We are that people. A people of faith.


Saint Joseph Rosary


On the crucifix

O Lord, in order to honor St. Joseph as he deserves, Thou hast taken him body and soul to Heaven to Crown him with glory, thus signifying to the world, both visible and invisible, that Thou hast made Joseph Thy foster-father, the supreme steward of all Thy possessions.

After saying the above prayer, skip to the large bead and say the following prayer, which will be said on each of the large beads.

We beseech Thee, O Lord, that we may find aid in the merits of the Spouse of Thy Most Holy Mother, so that what we cannot obtain by ourselves may be given us through his intercession, who livest and reignest with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God forever and ever. Amen.

St. Joseph Rosary
May be prayed just as Marian rosary, substituting the following prayer for the “Hail Mary”:

Joseph, son of David, and husband of Mary; we honor you, guardian of the Redeemer, and we adore the child you named Jesus.
Saint Joseph, patron of the universal church, pray for us, that like you we may live totally dedicated to the interests of the Savior. Amen.

Mysteries of the St. Joseph Rosary
Betrothal to Mary (Mt 1:18).
Annunciation to Joseph (Mt 1:19-21).
Birth and Naming of Jesus (Mt 1:22-25).
Flight into Egypt (Mt 2:13-15).
Hidden Life at Nazareth (Mt 2:23; Lk 2:51-52).

Catholic Traditional


Papal Dogma

“Pope Paul IV and his Bull Cum Ex Apostolates Officio which clearly authorizes the faithful to withdraw their obedience from a Pope who becomes known as a heretic from prior to his elevation.”[A Charitable Warning to those hosting posts on Anti-Sedevacantism, akacatholic.com] This post implies that a Pope can publicly become a heretic and it is not a sin for the faithful to withdraw from him.  I would agree, but neo-Catholics are not aware, or unwilling to contemplate such matters as they have found their comfort zones.  This level of discernment is just not what the pew-potato, Novus Ordo, compromisers  are ready for.  But we must not be too hard on them, and out of Christian charity we must pray for them, that God would open their eyes to the sect they are in.  For the longer one stays in the Novus ordo, I think, the more one is put to sleep by a deceptive spirit which gives you a false assurance of your spiritual condition.

Vatican II Rejection of Sedevacntism

“Those who reject the sedevacantism position believe that it is a dogma of the Church that a sitting Pope cannot lose the faith either while reigning or from a time prior to his pontificate. But the Church has never so held, and it is an historical fact that there have been heretical Popes! In such situations a Pope is to be rejected in total by the faithful. The faithful are under an obligation to withdraw from communion with heretics.”  [A Charitable Warning to those hosting posts on Anti-Sedevacantism, akacatholic.com]  In the post-conciliar Church today there is a stigma against anything traditional, but as I have quoted in previous articles, “When a foulness invades the whole Church we must return to the Church of the past.”(St. Vencent of Lerins)  I, myself, have left the Vatican II sect and am attending an SSPX chapel, but in the state the Church is in, I don’t judge anyone as to mortal sin and no-church attending; we are all lead by our own conscience and the Holy Spirit.  Especially if you do not have a traditional Mass in your area.

Future Pope

A future true Pope may vindicate sedevacantists by holding that the conciliar Popes all advanced heresies and thus were not true Popes.  I find some hope in the prophecies of Our Lady of Good Success, “Therefore, clamor insistently without tiring and weep with bitter tears in the privacy of your heart, imploring our Celestial Father that…He might take pity on His ministers and bring to an end those Ominous times, sending to this Church the Prelate who will restore the spirit of its priests.”

May it please God to likewise open the eyes of many others who are not afraid to raise their voices.

Amoris Laetitia  Heterodox

“Hence it is can no longer simply be said that all those in any “irregular” situation are living in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of sanctifying grace. More is involved here than mere ignorance of the rule. A subject may know full well the rule, yet have great difficulty in understanding “its inherent values”, or be in a concrete situation which does not allow him or her to act differently and decide otherwise without further sin” (AL 301).

“Yet conscience can do more than recognize that a given situation does not correspond objectively to the overall demands of the Gospel. It can also recognize with sincerity and honesty what for now is the most generous response which can be given to God, and come to see with a certain moral security that it is what God himself is asking amid the concrete complexity of one’s limits, while yet not fully the objective ideal “(AL 303).

1. After Amoris Laetitia (301) is it still possible to affirm that a person who habitually lives in contradiction to a commandment of God’s law, as for instance the one that prohibits adultery (Matthew 19:3-9), finds him or herself in an objective situation of grave habitual sin (Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, “Declaration,” June 24, 2000)?  2. After the affirmations of Amoris Laetitia (302) on “circumstances which mitigate moral responsibility,” does one still need to regard as valid the teaching of St. John Paul II’s encyclical Veritatis Splendor, 81, based on sacred Scripture and on the Tradition of the Church, according to which “circumstances or intentions can never transform an act intrinsically evil by virtue of its object into an act ‘subjectively’ good or defensible as a choice”?  3. After Amoris Laetitia (303) does one still need to regard as valid the teaching of St. John Paul II’s encyclical Veritatis Splendor, 56, based on sacred Scripture and on the Tradition of the Church, that excludes a creative interpretation of the role of conscience and that emphasizes that conscience can never be authorized to legitimate exceptions to absolute moral norms that prohibit intrinsically evil acts by virtue of their object?

Concluding Thought

Let me just conclude with a reference to sacred scripture: (Matthew 19:3-9 NAB)

Some Pharisees approached him, and tested him, saying, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any cause whatever?” He said in reply, “Have you not read that from the beginning the Creator ‘made them male and female’ and said, ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’?  So they are no longer two, but one flesh.  Therefore, what God has joined together, no human being shall separate.” They said to him, “Then why did Moses command that the man give the woman a bill of divorce and dismiss [her]?” He said to them, “Because of the hardness of your hearts Moses allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so.  I say to you, whoever divorces his wife (unless the marriage is unlawful) and marries another commits adultery.

The Eucharist- a Catholic Perspective

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The Eucharist is a true Sacrament instituted by Christ

The modern mind seems to want to dismiss the Eucharist as unhistorical; rationalism insists on discounting it as a mere symbol, or worse yet as a fabrication.  The Catholic teaching is that the Eucharist is a Sacrament of the New Law.

1.) The outward sign = bread and wine (matter) and the words of consecration (form) which effect a permanent result.

2.) The inner grace, which is effected in the soul by the outward sign, according to John 6:27 gives eternal life.

“Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give you; for on him has God the Father set his seal.”

3.) Instituted by Christ, ” do this in remembrance of me.” (Luke 22:19, 1 Cor. 11:24,RSV) The early Christians had a genuineness to this solemn feast of Holy Communion.   It is inconceivable that they would have had such a solemnity of this meal, had it not been for Christ’s mandate.   “According to Christ’s own words when he promised this great gift, the Eucharist is to be a source of life to all the faithful.”[Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Dr. L. Ott, p.391]

“So Jesus said to them,’Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you.”(John 6:53,RSV)

The species of bread and wine are the very body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ.  After consecration by a priest, they remain and are a permanent Sacrament, but in reception diverge in time.

The Outward Signs of the Eucharist

1.) Matter

Bread and wine make up the matter for consumption in the Eucharist.

a.) According to an ancient tradition of the Church, wheaten bread and natural grape wine is a condition for validity.

b.) According to the customs of early Christians, a small amount of water would be mixed with the wine, this is not an essential for it to be valid.  The water is symbolic of the flowing out of water from the side of Christ, which symbolically shows the mystical union between His human and divine nature.  Innocent III taught that the whole mixture is transubstantiated.

2.) Form

The Catholic Church holds to the view that it is the words of the priest that consummates the host, solely in the uttering of the words:

“Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples an said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them saying, ‘Drink of it, all of you; for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.”( Matt. 26:26-28, RSV)

The Effects of the Eucharist

1.) Unification with Christ

a.) The chief fruit of the Eucharist is an intrinsic union of the recepient with Christ.  As a fruit of Holy Communion, Christ promised this inner communion of soul with him.  Jesus says, “As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me.”(John 6:57,RSV) Saint Cyril of Jerusalem taught that the receiving of the Eucharist made the Christian become a “Christ-bearer.”

b.) The unity of the faithful with Christ can be seen by St. Paul, “Because we being many are one bread, one body; all that partake of one bread.”(1 Cor. 10:17) Saint Thomas also sees the Eucharist as the “Sacrament of Church Unity.”

2.) Preservation and Increase of Supernatural life

The Eucharist as food for the soul, preserves and increases the supernatural  life of the soul.

a.) We receive supernatural power from receiving the Eucharistic; it weakens the evil concupiscence by the deepening of love, and it reinforces the power of the will.  It allows you to withstand temptations to commit sin.

b.) The Eucharist increases the grace in the life of the believer by confirming  the supernatural habits of grace with the infused virtues of the Holy Spirit.

c.) The Eucharist cures the soul of disease by removing and purging it of venial sin and also the temporal punishment  accrued by that sin.  This also intensifies the acts of charity.

d.) By receiving the Eucharist it gives a spiritual  joy for the defense of Christ.  Also a joyful acceptance of the sacrifices and duties of the Christian life.

3.) Pledge of Heavenly bliss and of Future Resurrection

The Eucharist is a pledge of heavenly bliss and of the future resurrection of the body.  “The Council of Trent calls the Eucharist “a pledge of our future glory and perpetual bliss.””[Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Dr. L. Ott, p. 395]

We know from scripture that we  will be “raised up in the last day”, those who “eat my flesh and drink my blood have everlasting life.” says Jesus.( John 6:55)

The fathers or the Church struggled with the Gnostic heresy denying the resurrection of the body.  St. Ignatius of Antioch calls it “a means of help towards immortality” and “an antidote by means of which one does not die, but lives forever in Jesus Christ.”(Eph. 20:2) St. Irenaeus says against the Gnostics: “When our bodies partake of the Eucharist, they are no longer corruptible, as they have the hope of eternal resurrection.” (Adv. haer. IV, 18,5; cf.V 2, 2 et seq.)

The Necessity of the Eucharist

1.) For young children

a.)For children before the age of reason to receive the Eucharist is not necessary for salvation. According to scripture and tradition, baptism alone is sufficient for salvation.  Mk. 16:16 “He that believes and is baptised shall be saved.” Since young children are incapable of personal sin, the justifying grace received at baptism cannot be lost before the age of reason.  As the incorporation into the body of Christ begins at baptism and is completed in the Eucharist.This is supported by St. Augustine and St. Thomas who teach the intention of the Church is that baptised persons should desire the Eucharist, since baptism directs us toward the Eucharist, and perfects the work of Baptism.

2.) For Adults

For Adults the reception of the Eucharist is necessary for salvation

a.) In the words of institution the divine precept expresses itself in Christ’s promise of the Eucharist, “So Jesus said to them’Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you;”( John 6:53, RSV) It is made clear that eternal life depends on partaking of the body and blood of Christ.  The Church, by the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) and the Council of Trent that “reception once a year, at Easter, as a minimum duty.”(D 437, 891: CIC 859) This obligation starts at the age of reason, at approximately  age 7.

3.) Validity of Communion under one form

Communion under two forms is not necessary for any person, either by precept or as a means of salvation.  The Council of Trent and the Council of Constance,  rejected the teaching of the Reformers that say Communion under both forms is necessary.  These councils authorized the reception of Communion under one form. This is because Christ is whole under both species.  “The abolition of the reception from the chalice in the Middle Ages (12th and 13th centuries) was enjoined for practical reasons, particularly danger of profanation of the Sacrament.” [Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Dr. L. Ott, p. 397]

The Minister of the Eucharist

1.) The power of Consecration

The power of consecration resides in the validly consecrated priest only.  The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) declared: “This Sacrament can be consecrated by a legitimately ordained priest only.” The Council of Trent defined the institution of a special priesthood that is given the power to consecrate, and to them alone.

Another Council, the Council of Nice (can. 18) grants to deacons the power to bring Holy Communion to those who are absent, but expressly denies them the right of consecration.  The early Church, it can be assumed by illusion to scripture, possessed the sacerdotal powers through their immediate divine vocation just  as the Apostles did.(Acts 13:1, Gal. 1:1, Acts 2:42)

2.) Minister

The priest is the mediator between God and the people.  During the period when communion was being given to the people under both forms, the priest would dispense the Sacred Body,  and the deacon the Sacred Blood.  The ordinary minister of the Eucharist is the priest; the extraordinary minister is the deacon.

The Recipient of the Eucharist

There were three types of persons the Council of Trent determined as recipients.  1.) The merely sacramental reception. to receive in a state of sin(unworthy).  2.) The merely spiritual reception. Having a desire for the sacrament from a living faith(spiritual ).  3.) The sacramental-spiritual reception. Receiving the sacrament in a state of grace(worthy communion).

1.) Condition for Valid Reception

The Sacrament  of the Eucharist can be validly received by every baptised person.  This includes young children.

2.) Condition of Worthy Reception

A pious and proper disposition  as well as being in a state of grace are necessary.   We must sufficiently prepare ourselves before receiving the Eucharist.  The Council of Trent says that faith alone does not meet the minimum sufficient for receiving.  Those who are in mortal sin must not receive.  The sacrament of Penance must be received before approaching Holy Communion.  A perfect act of contrition is sufficient only if the sacrament of penance is not readily available, and then, only in the case of necessity.

“Pope Pius X declared that nobody may be turned away from the sacred table, who approaches it in a state of grace and who has the proper and pious disposition, that is, the desire to receive for a supernatural motive.”[Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Dr. L. Ott, p. 399]

Requiring the person to be in a state of grace can be found in scripture.  St. Paul says, “Let a man examine himself, and so eat the bread and drink of the cup.” (1 Cor. 11:28, RSV)  The context of the Eucharist is also preceded by the foot washings of John 13:4 which does not only speak of humility, but can be seen as a symbolic purifying of the conscience.  St. Augustine also required his communicants to come to the alter with pure consciences.

An unworthy Communion is sacrilege.   “for he that eateth and drinketh unworthily  eateth and drinketh judgement to himself.”(1 Cor. 11:27)  The ancient Church reverenced the Sacrament in requiring a fast from midnight to prepare oneself for a worthy reception of the Eucharist the next day.

All this being said, the reverence due to the Sacrament of the Eucharist , Which demands, that apart from a case of necessity , ONLY THE CONSECRATED HANDS OF THE PRIEST TOUCH IT.


Luke 1:28

Mother Mary

“”Hail, full of grace”: literally the Greek reads “Rejoice!”, obviously referring to a unique joy over the news which the angel is about to communicate.

“Full of grace”: by this unusual form of greeting the archangel reveals Mary’s special dignity and honor.   The fathers and doctors of the Church “taught that this singular, solemn and  unheard-of greeting showed that all the divine graces reposed in the Mother of God and that she was adorned with all the gifts of the “Holy Spirit”, which meant she “was never subject to the curse”, that is, was preserved from all sin.  These words of the archangel in this text constitute one of the sources which reveal the dogma of Mary’s immaculate conception (cf. Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus; Paul VI, Creed of the People of God).

“The Lord is with you!”: these words are not simply a greeting (“the Lord be with you”) but an affirmation (“The Lord is with you”), and they are closely connected with the Incarnation.  St. Augustine comments by putting these words on the archangels lips: “He is more with you than he is with me:he is in your heart, he takes shape within you, he fills your soul, he is in your womb” (Sermo de Nativitate Domini, 4).

Some important Greek manuscripts and early translations add at the end of the verse: “Blessed are you among women!”, meaning that God will exalt Mary over all women.  She is more excellent than Sarah, Hannah, Deborah, Rachel, Judith. ect., for only she has the supreme honor of being chosen to be the Mother of God.”[The Navarre Bible: Gospel and Acts, P. 345]

“Luk 1:27 word Miriam, or Mary, is expounded by St. Jerome from different etymologies, to signify in Hebrew, star of the sea, and in Chaldaic, lady. Both interpretations admirably well agree with her, who is the glorious Queen of heaven, our patroness and star, to direct us in the stormy ocean of this world. — “O you,” cries out St. Bernard, “who find yourselves tossed to and fro in this tempestuous life, turn not your eyes away from the brightness of this star, if you would not be overwhelmed in these storms. If the winds of temptations arise; if you fall among the rocks of tribulation; look up to the star, call upon Mary. If your are agitated, and hard driven with the surges of pride, ambition, detraction, jealously, or envy; look up to the star, call upon Mary. If anger, covetousness, or lust, beat furiously on the vessel of your soul; look up to the star, call upon Mary. If you are beginning to founder, and are just sinking into the gulf of melancholy and despair; think on Mary. In dangers, in distresses, in perplexities, think on Mary, call on Mary. Let her name be never absent from your mouth; from your mouth let it constantly descend into your heart; and, that you may obtain the suffrage of her prayers; both in life and death, never depart from the example of her pious conversation.” (St. Bernard, hom. ii. super Missus est.)

Hail, full of grace:[5] by the greatest share of divine graces granted to any creature. This translation, approved by the ancient Fathers, agrees with the ancient Syriac and Arabic versions. There was no need therefore to change it into gracious, with Erasmus; into freely beloved, with Beza; into highly favoured, with the Protestant translators. For if seven deacons (Acts vi. 3.) are said to be full of the Holy Ghost, as it is again said of St. Stephen, (Acts vii. 55.) and also of the same St. Stephen, (Acts vi. ver. 8.) that he was full of grace, (as the learned Dr. Wells translates it in his amendments made to the Protestant translation) why should any one be offended at this salutation given to the blessed mother of God; who would not have been raised to this highest dignity, had not her soul been first prepared for it by the greatest share of divine graces? — The Lord is with thee, by his interior graces; and now, at this moment, is about to confer upon thee the highest of all dignities, by making thee truly the mother of God. (Witham) — The Catholic Church makes frequent use of these words which were brought by the archangel from heaven, as well to honour Jesus Christ and his virgin Mother, as because they were the first glad tidings of Christ’s incarnation, and man’s salvation; and are the very abridgment and sum of the whole gospel. In the Greek Church, they are used daily in the Mass [the Divine Liturgy]. See the Liturgy of St. James, and that of St. John Chrysostom.”[Haydock Catholic Bible Commentary]